SURPAC
Surveying
Software
The
SURPAC "Lite" Module Applications 
Coordinate
File Editing

Defining
the Coordinate File System using a variety of World Systems, e.g.

Southern
African "Lo" Grid Systems (Clarke 1880 (Modified) Ellipsoid) 

South
African "WG" Grid System (WGS 84 Ellipsoid) 

Namibian
"Bessel" System (Bessel 1841 Ellipsoid (GL Metres and Int. Metres) 

U.K.
National Grid System, OSGB36, (Airy 1830 Ellipsoid) 

U.K.
National GPS Network, ETRS89, (WGS 84 (GRS80) Ellipsoid) 

Irish
National Grid (Airy 1830 (Modified) Ellipsoid) 

Universal
Transverse Mercator, UTM, (Various Ellipsoids) 

Coordinate
axes are automatically designated as [Y, X, Z], or [E, N, H] 


Data
in a Coordinate File consist of :

Point Number, 

Point Y  ordinate (or Easting), 

Point
X  ordinate (or Northing), 

Point Peg Height, 

Point
Auxiliary Height


Point
Description,


Point Field Book Page number


Point
Calculation Page number



Manual
Adding/Editing/Deletion of Points 

Importing
of Point Coordinate Data from :

ASCII
[Y, X, Z] Files (various formats) 

ASCII
[Latitude, Longitude] Files (various formats) 

DXF
Files 

Other
SURPAC Coordinate Files 

A
wide range of Electronic Loggers and Total Stations (Direct download, or
from ASCII File)

The
currently supported Total Stations and/or Electronic Loggers are :

The
Psion
Organiser
using the "HandiData Solutions Booker
Ver 5.1"
software,


The
Psion
Workabout,
using the "HandiData Solutions Booker
Ver 6.1",
or higher,


The
Leica/Wild
GIF10 data
logger,


The
Leica
TC 605/805/905 Series
Total Station,


The
Leica
TCR 303/305/307 Series
Total Station,


The
Nikon
DTM400 Series
Total Station,


The
Nikon
NPL300/350/500/700 Series
Total Station,


The
Pentax
PCS300 Series
Total Station,


The
Sokkia
SET2C/SET3C Series
Total Station,


The
Sokkia
SET2100/SET3100/SET4100 Series
Total Station,


The
Sokkia
SET2110/SET3110/SET4110
Series Total
Station,


The
Sokkia
SET300, SET500, SET600
Total Station,


The
Topcon
GTS200/210
Series Total Station,


The
Topcon
GTS500/700
Series Total Station.





Exporting
of Point Coordinate Data to :

ASCII
[Y, X, Z] Files (various formats) 

ASCII
[Latitude, Longitude] Files (various formats) 

A
wide range of Electronic Loggers and Total Stations 

the
Windows Clipboard 


Establishing/Editing
of Point Description information 
General
CAD Construction/Editing

Plot
all, or selected Points from the current Coordinate File 

Display
and Name Points using a variety of builtin symbols, Sizes and/or Colours 

Construct/Edit
Lines using various Line Styles, Thicknesses and/or Colours 

Construct/Edit
Arcs and Circles using various Line Styles, Thicknesses and/or Colours 

Write/Edit
Text Items using various Fonts, orientations, sizes and Colours 

Display
Contours created in the SURPAC Contour CAD programme 

Display
Centre Line Data from the SURPAC Horizontal Alignment programme 

Auto
Hatch closed polygons using a variety of Hatch Styles 

Import
Graphic Images (BMP, JPEG, GIF, ICO, WMF or EMF formats) 

Create
Graphic Image of Sheet, or portion of the Sheet (BMP format) 

Display/Plot
the Sheet at any Orientation, or Scale 

Auto
Display Grid Mesh and/or North Point 

Using
simple mouse or keyboard commands, the onscreen view of a CAD Sheet
may be :

Zoomed
Up, 

Zoomed
Down, 

Zoomed
to a defined window, 

Zoomed
to the defined Plotting scale, 

Zoomed
to a User defined scale, 

Rotated
positively or negatively, 

Panning
or scrolling the display. 


Use
various drawing Construction/Edit functions such as :

Line
Bisect, 

Line
Dimension, 

Line
Generate (using Polar Data), 

Line
Intersect, 

Line
Logical draw, 

Line
Replicate, 

Line
Sketch, 

Line
Trim/Snap, 

Line
Subdivide, 

Draw Arrows,
Rectangles, Arcs or Circles 

Auto
Display Line Direction and/or Distance, 

Calculate
Areas by auto Line location or Point definition. 


Use
various Text Writing/Editing functions, such as :

Write
a Text Item at any Font, Direction, Size, WTH ratio or Colour 

Dynamic
Copy Text Items 

Dynamic
Move Text Items 

Dynamic
ReSize and ReOrient Text Items 

Edit
or Delete existing Text Items 

Import
Text Items from an ASCII File 


Use
various Graphic Editing functions, such as :

Import
Graphic Images (BMP, JPEG, GIF, ICO, WMF or EMF formats) 

Create
Graphic Image of Sheet, or portion of the Sheet (BMP format) 

Flip
an Image (Horizontal, Vertical or both) 

Set
Images to be in front of, or behind, drawing information 

Move
an Image 

ReSize
an Image 

Shift
an Image 

Transform
an Image (to fit current System position and size) 

Use
a Transformed Image to Digitize Points and Lines 

Adjust
Image Brightness and/or Contrast 


Use
the SURPAC "Frame" function to :

Copy
defined a block of Data from Position 1 to Position 2, or Sheet 1 to Sheet
2 

Move
a defined block of Data from Position 1 to Position 2 

Delete
a defined block of Line/Text data 

Align
a defined block of Text Items (Left/ Centre/ Right Justify, plus
horizontal spacing) 

Rotate
a defined block of Data 

Zoom
Up, or Zoom Down, a defined block of Data 

Store
and recall Data Blocks from disk for repeated Sheet application 


Import
Line, Arc, Circle, Hatch and Text data from DXF Files 

Import
Line, Arc, Circle, Hatch and Text data from other SURPAC CAD Files 

Import
Line, Arc, Circle, Hatch and Text data from TopoCAD CAD/GIS Files 

Import
Spline Contours and Contour Labelling 

Print
Sheet to A0  A4 Printer (Inkjet or Pen) 

Create
a DXF file of Sheet data 

Create
an HPGL file of Sheet data 
Joins (Sides)

Using
2D
[Y, X] values, providing [Horizontal Direction & Distance] 

Using
3D
[Y, X, Z] values, providing [Horizontal Direction & Distance plus
Vertical Angle & Height Difference] 

Calculations
may be in Normal, Radial or Sequential Join mode. 
Polars

Manual
Input, or direct reduction from a SURPAC Observation File 

Plane
Data Calculations :

2D
[Hor. Direction & Distance] providing [Y, X] values 

3D
[Hor. Direction, Slope Distance & Vertical angle] providing [Y, X, Z]
values 


Field
Data Calculations :

2D
[Oriented Direction, Reduced Distance] providing [Y, X] values 

3D
[Oriented Direction, Reduced Distance & Height Diff] providing [Y, X, Z]
values 


Each
SetUp in the defined Observation File is oriented using one or more
orientation observations, and the T t corrections are applied. Distances
are reduced for Scale Enlargement, Sea Level, Projection Factor and Slope.
Vertical Angles are corrected for Curvature and Refraction. 

Calculation
may be in Normal, Radial or Sequential Polar mode 
Reverse
Polars

Calculate
an unknown SetUp Point [Y, X, Z] by observing to one, or more,
distant known Points (such as Trig. Stations) and observing and
measuring to a close known Point. Data are extracted from a User
defined SURPAC
Observation File. 
Two
Sides and the Included Angle

Calculate
and check an unknown SetUp Point [Y, X, Z] by observing and measuring
to two known Points. Data are extracted from a User defined SURPAC
Observation File. 
Intersections

Intersection
of a new Point by "Direction and Direction" from two known
Points 

Trilateration
of a new Point by Distance and Distance" from two known Points 

Intersection
of a new Point by "Direction and Distance" from two known
Points 

Calculate
the Tangent Point from a Point to a defined Circle 

Calculate
Circular Curve information from given data 

Fit
a Circular Curve through 3 defined Points 
Area
Calculations

Calculate
Area and Data from Coordinates 

Calculate
Area from Coordinates with Coordinate checking from entered Polar
data 

Calculate
Area from entered Polar data, without Coordinate checking 

Calculate
two new Points to create a defined fixed Area 

Calculate
a new Point using a given Pivot Point and a defined fixed Area 
Point
OffLine Calculations

Computes
and displays the OffLine positions of all Points lying within a
prescribed distance of a defined base line. Users may view the
OffLine data from the line connecting two terminals, or from a Least
Squares Line of Best Fit that, uses all Points located to
determine the fit. 

Existing
Points may be recomputed at their OnLine positions, or new Points
maybe computed a these positions and the original Points maintained. 
Road
Apex Calculations

[Y,
X] values for a
new Point are computed at a User defined Road Apex position. Input
requirements are the left and
right Road Widths and their Directions. 
Line
Running and Adjusting

[Y,
X] values of Points
are calculated along a defined base line. The base line is determined
by its User defined terminal Points. Line distances between new
Points may be singular or repeated. Line misclosure data is displayed
after all data are entered. 
Splay point Calculations

[Y,
X] values for two
new Points are computed at the defined Splay positions, one either side of the
Apex Point. Input requirements are the left and right Road Directions and the Splay
Distance. 
Data
Traverse Calculations

Calculates
and adjusts a simple Traverse using plane data. The programme is
designed for use in calculating Point coordinates by means of
starting from a known Point on a General Plan (for example) then using
the plan Directions and Distances to compute traverse legs through a
series of Points whose coordinate are required. The last leg used
must close onto the first, or another, known Point. T3 different modes
of adjustment are available to the User. 
Field
Traverse Calculations

Calculates
and adjusts a series of Traverse Points, using adjusted data
extracted from a User defined SURPAC
Observation File. 

Each
SetUp in the Traverse is oriented using one, or more, interior and/or
exterior orientations. The T t corrections are also applied. 

Traverse
Distances
are reduced for Scale Enlargement, Sea Level, Projection Factor and
Slope. Vertical Angles are corrected for Curvature and
Refraction. 

If
observed, the mean of forward and back distances and vertical height
differences are used. 

Traverse
may be 2D (Y, X) or 3D (Y, X, Z). 

Three
adjustment alternatives are offered to adjust the Traverse
misclosure. 

NB
: The
SURPAC Planimetric Least Squares Adjustment programme may also be used
for computing Traverses. 
Printing
a Coordinate/Peg File

Coordinate
File information is sent to the Printer. For Cadastral Surveys, the
output may be organized by Category (Points Placed, Points Found
etc.), or the list may be a simple alphanumeric one. 

Various
other options exist which allow for selected subsets of the list to
be printed. 
Printing
Setting
Out Sheets

Setting
Out and/or Checking Sheets may be generated using either A4, or A5
format. 

Setting
Out data may be derived from either the current Coordinate file, or
from a User defined Horizontal Alignment file (Centre Line file). 

Setting
out format may be in horizontal order, within a specified radius, or
Line Running pages may be generated between Point terminals. 

Checking
Sheets may automatically be linked to Coordinate file data to provide
a list of [dY, dX] values between theoretical values and as observed
values. 
Basic
Coordinate/Distance/Area Conversions

Carries
out various standard Conversions using either built in, or User
defined factors. 

Distances,
Coordinates and/or Areas may be converted. 

For coordinate data, transformed Points maybe saved
in a Coordinate file, or in ASCII file format. 
Transforming
Gauss Conform to/from Geographical values

This
set of Transformation programmes supports the following Systems and/or
Ellipsoids :

Various
Southern
African "Lo" Systems using the Clarke 1880 (Modified) Ellipsoid, 

South
African "WG" System using the WGS 84 Ellipsoid, 

Namibian
"Bessel" System using the Bessel 1841 Ellipsoid (GL Metres and Int. Metres), 

U.K.
National Grid System, OSGB36, using the Airy 1830 Ellipsoid, 

U.K.
National GPS Network, ETRS89, using the WGS 84 (GRS80) Ellipsoid, 

Irish
National Grid using the Airy 1830 (Modified) Ellipsoid, 

Universal
Transverse Mercator, U.T.M., using Various Ellipsoids. 


Geographical
[Latitude, Longitude] to Transverse Mercator [Y, X] (or [E, N])
transformations 

Transverse
Mercator [Y, X] (or [E, N]) to Geographical [Latitude, Longitude]
transformations 

Transverse
Mercator [Y, X] (or [E, N]) System 1 to System 2 (Belt 1 to Belt 2)
transformations 

Transverse
Mercator [Y, X] (or [E, N]) System to U.T.M. [E, N] Zone
transformations 

U.T.M.
[E, N] Zone to Transverse Mercator [Y, X] (or [E, N]) System
transformations 

U.T.M.
[E, N] Zone 1 to U.T.M. [E, N] Zone 2 transformations 
Standard
Helmert Transformations

This
programme is capable of handling any planar, orthogonal System to System
transformation. 

The
programme uses a Parametric nonweighted (1st Order) Least Squares adjustment technique.
Developed inhouse, this technique uses the rigorous least squares
adjustment of residuals determined from the weighted centres of gravity of
the two sets of Control Points. 

The
minimum requirement is two common points coordinate in both systems.


For
transformations (or superpositions) with more than two common points, the
transforming parameters are determined by the means of a Least Squares best
fit.


The
transformation is always carried out from some other system, to
the system as defined by the current
Coordinate File


The
Common Point data from which the transformation is being carried out, may be
manually entered, or read from another Coordinate File


There
are a number of Options that may be made once a system to system
transformation has been made, viz :

You
may DELETE a common point, or a number of common points from the
transformation and then rerun the
transformation.


You
may ADD a further common point, or a number of further common points, to
the transformation and then rerun the
transformation.


You
may EDIT any point in the transformation by reentering its coordinates
and then rerun the transformation.



The transforming parameters of a previous transformation may be entered
directly to allow immediate transformation of noncommon points. These
values may be entered manually, or read from an ASCII file. This file
may be regenerated immediately after carrying out a transformation. 

Once correct, the transformation of noncommon points may be carried out.
These transformed points may be stored in the current Coordinate
file.

Locate
and Mean Point Groups in a Coordinate File

A Point Group is defined as two, or more, Points in a
Coordinate File that lie within a prescribed distance of one
another. The programme will search through the current Coordinate File,
using an alphanumeric order, looking for Points that create a Point Group.
A Point Group can consist of between 2 to 14 Points in size. 

This
programme incorporates a number of useful functions. For example :

It
may be used to search for and Display the Values of a Point that may have
been surveyed two, or more, times and Saved in the Coordinate File under
different Names.


It
may be used to Mean all the Points in a Point Group and then save these
meaned values in the Coordinate File, using a default Name or a User
entered Name.


It
may be used to Adopt either the first, or the second located Point in a
Point Group and then save this Point’s values in the Coordinate File ,
using a default Name or a User entered Name.


It
may be used to Delete all Points in a Point Group, other than the Point
selected as the required Point representing the Point Group.


Point Comparisons using Different Coordinate Files

This
programme provides the facility of comparing any two SURPAC
Coordinate Files.


The
displayed programme Screen makes allowance for defining the two required
files and for selecting the mode to be used for comparing the two files.


The
Files may be compared by using the Point Names to identify common Points. When a matching Point is found,
the programme will compare the coordinates of the Point in each of the
two Files and calculate the polar values derived from the coordinate
differences (if any).


The
Files may also be compared by matching coordinates . You must set a
logical limit within which the programme must search for a matching Point.
For each Point in File No.1, the programme will search for the closest
Point, within the defined search radius, in File No. 2. When a Point is
found, the programme will calculate the polar values derived from the
coordinate differences of the two Points (if any).

Single Point Fixing (Resections, Intersections and Trilaterations)

The mathematical principle of this programme is the rigorous Least Squares adjustment
by the variation of coordinates. The "Schreiber's Elimination" technique is
used to minimize the variancecovariance matrix.


This
programme will handle any type of single Point fix using any combination of
Triangulation and/or Trilateration, as well as a Height determination for
the Free point, such as :

Point Trilateration [Y, X], or [E, N] 

Point Resection [Y, X], or [E, N] 

Point Resection [Y, X, Z], or [E, N, H] 

Point Resection [Z], or [H] 

Point Intersection [Y, X], or [E, N] 

Point Intersection [Y, X, Z], or [E, N, H] 

Point Intersection [Z], or [H] 


The
current Coordinate File is used to extract the coordinates of the User
defined Fixed Points used in the
determination of the [Y, X] (or
[E, N] ) coordinates (and/or the Height, if required), of the new Point.


The
Observation data (Horizontal angles, Distances, Vertical angles, Target
heights and Instrument heights) are extracted from a User defined General
Observation File.


The
programme allows for the abstracting and combining of Multiple Arcs . Up to
8 Arcs (or faces) are allowed for a given Setup. Each arc may include up to
30 sighted points. The observations are displayed showing the abstracting in
the conventional survey manner, including the Mean and the Standard
Deviation. The meaned values of the Horizontal angles, the Vertical angles
and Distances are used in the Single Point Fix calculation.


For
a Trilateration calculation, the programme will use any combination of
Forward and/or Backward measured Distances to compute the new Point. The
minimum number of distances is 3. The programme will search through the
General Observation File , or defined portion of the File and extract all
measured lines to and/or from, the new Point. All Distances will then be
reduced and used to carry out a simultaneous Least Squares fix and
adjustment of the Point’s [Y, X] (or [E, N]) ordinates.


The
Network
File Editor
includes an “Active” column, which can be set to Active or
NonActive, for all the data lines displayed for a Single Point Fix
calculation.


A
Data Line that is defined as Active is available and will be used in the
calculation of the new Point. An Active Data Line will have a Green Tick
displayed in its “Active” column.


A
Data Line defined as NonActive is data that exists, but which will not be
used for the current calculation. A NonActive Data Line will have a Red
Cross displayed in its “Active” column, and the Observation information
will be displayed in red Italic text. A Data Line's Active status can be
changed using a single mouse click.


The
output, of a calculation consists of :

the
final coordinates of the new Point,


the
orientation correction, in the case of a resection,


a
comparison of observed quantities with final quantities and a list of
observational residuals,


the
standard deviation of unit weight for the observation set,


the
standard errorellipse parameters,


a
list of [Y, X] (or [E, N] )
ordinate axis cuts for each ray,


a
list of input data for the height fix (if required) and the computed height
differences along with their adjustments and final values.


